New research by a team of University of Maryland biologists shows the timber rattlesnake indirectly benefits humans by keeping Lyme disease in check.
Monday, June 5, 2017
Dear President Trump,
I am a concerned citizen. The reason I am concerned is because of the number of mosques in our country. There are videos and sites all over the internet that show what is found when some of these supposed places of worship are inspected.
The fact is ISIS is here in this country and they are preparing for something. There is proof of military style training camps all over the country and they all have one thing in common. If you are trying to gain access to their property to ask questions or have a look around you are met with resistance which is usually armed.
The state of Michigan is in dire straits in certain towns like Dearborn and others where muslims have taken over the city council and changed laws to fit their beliefs. It appears that the state of Michigan is soon to be their so called caliphate for our country. The writing is on the wall.
My solution to this growing problem is to ban the Quron in its present form and, using a special task force made up of local law enforcement, plan and execute surprise inspections of all mosques in this country.
If there really is such a thing as a “peaceful muslim” legally here then it is their patriotic duty to assimilate to our culture and values. It is our Constitutional law and we should accept nothing less.
Thank you for your time on these matters Mr. President. I know you don’t broadcast what you are planning but it sure would be nice to wake up to this news someday.
Yours in Patriotism, Curtis Hutson
It was easy to tell when it was time to start preparing for the annual Apple Butter making ritual. The leaves would start to show a hint of color as the nights got cooler. Soon the first hard freeze would bring out Autumn in all it’s colorful beauty. Labor Day weekend was a distant memory as the calendar stated it was time to prepare for Halloween. The second week of October was usually unseasonably warm during the day with cold nights which was perfect weather to put the finishing touches on the apple orchards and their bounty.
I grew up in a family that believed in things like planting a big garden every year so there would be plenty of food to be preserved by either freezing or canning. There was also hunting to be done during this time of year for rabbits, squirrels, wild turkey, and deer. The meat from all of these that wasn’t eaten fresh was put up in the freezer to be enjoyed throughout the winter and spring.
The garden also yielded hundreds of pounds of potatoes, carrots, and other root vegetables that would be placed in a wooden bin in the back of the basement where they would be safe from freezing during the cold winter months.
There was always one section of the bin left empty until apple butter time to be used for twenty five to thirty bushels of apples that would only be there for a short time.
The “ritual” of making homemade apple butter was a week-long process and the plans for that week had to be made well in advance with every detail covered. First on the list would be a trip to the local orchard when the apples were just ripe enough to begin falling off the trees. The preferred species of apple was a dark red, sweet variety known as Wine Saps. There would also be a few bushels of another kind too but it depended on what was available year to year.
Next a list of possible help and volunteers was produced with the promise that those who chose to help with the orchard run, the peeling and snitting of the apples, or the all day stirring that would take place on Saturday would receive free apple butter when the final product was in jars and ready to box up.
There was sugar to buy and firewood to gather along with a long list of little things needing done that would make the yearly endeavor a success so quite a few able bodies were needed at different times from start to finish.
Early on a Saturday morning all of us kids would be awakened to the sound of our grandfather saying it was time to pick the apples. After a quick breakfast in the wee hours of the morning we would all pile in Pops jeep and along with a couple other vehicles we would make the hour and a half drive to the orchard.
One of my favorite memories from this was arriving at the orchard very early in the morning and the heavy dew on the grass around the trees would soak your shoes through after only a short walk. The fog would be rising with the coming rays of the morning sun and all of the different insects would begin their morning song.
After checking in at the gate we would be told what part of the orchard to go to in order to find the variety of apples we were after. I will always remember the old man who owned the orchard because of his huge smile and the fact that he sounded like Elmer Fudd when he gave us the directions. My father and I would share a private joke about it for years to come with all due respect to him.
He would say “OK you go down this road to the first WEFT and then you go past the shed and make a WIGHT, then count the rows of TWEES until you pass the third row. Make a WEFT and the TWEES you are looking for are WIGHT thereâ€¦”. He would grin at us kids knowing our giggles were innocent and without malice.
After a short bumpy ride into the middle of all the trees we would all pile out and start looking for ladders. The rule was you could take anything on the ground and only the apples on the trees the ladders would reach. A big no-no was shaking the trees to get more apples from the top but the management seemed to look the other way so we could get the best for our venture.
Grabbing a towel to wipe the dew off the apples along with a stack of peck baskets numbering 5 or 6 we would head off under the rows of perfectly pruned trees looking for the one with the brightest red apples. Another sign of a tree full of good apples was the number of them laying on the ground. If there wasn’t any at all it meant that tree needed a few more days to ripen but if you happened upon one that had a few apples here and there on the ground then it was time to fill your baskets.
When the sun was high above our head and the temperature had climbed into the 70’s and everyone had removed the heavy jackets needed earlier in the AM the picking was better than half way finished. There was always a couple of pick up trucks in the crowd and they would have the beds lined with heavy cardboard so that as the baskets were filled they could be dumped loosely into the pick up beds. In the end we would leave for home with 25 or 30 bushels of apples and a lot of tired bodies.
Getting home well after dark the last job of the day would be to unload the apples on a prepared place on the basement floor. This location was picked due to the cool concrete and fairly dark. At this point the apples would be sorted, placed in burlap bags, and placed in the potato bin at the back of the basement. They were ready for the job at hand which was peeling and cutting the apples into much smaller pieces. Here they would sit in the cool dark basement until the following Thursday.
Hand Cranked Peelers and Snits
That Thursday started early for my grandparents. My grandmother was up at the crack of dawn to start a day of many chores in preparation for the group of people who would be showing up for breakfast. These people were usually neighbors and relatives who lived close by. There was always lots of volunteers to choose from due to the fact that anyone other than immediate family who helped with the process in one way or another would receive free quarts of the finished product.
Gramma would pull out numerous paring knives to sharpen as Pop fried bacon and eggs for the “early crew”. Once the breakfast dishes had been done the women prepared the kitchen for the days activities by clearing the table, sliding all the chairs into the living room and the pulling the table apart so two large side boards could be added. This would make it possible for up to twelve people to sit and work on the apples at the same time. The other part of the process could be found in the basement.
Together with us and a few others we would assemble a long wooden plank table to sawhorses in the basement that would hold the peelers. These little mechanical wonders peeled an apple with 4 or 5 turns of a small crank. The apple would be impaled on a small pitchfork looking set of spikes. A long lever with a razor-sharp blade on it would circle the apple as you turned the cranks. Some models even cored the apple for you. Thanks to others who had peelers of their own we would line up four or five in a row.
The bags of apples were brought in two at a time in order to keep all the peelers running. There would be peeler break downs and replacements put to use and everyone did what ever it took to accomplish the task at hand which was to turn 30 bushel of apples into small bits of apple known as snits.
Just as quick as the apples were peeled and placed in large tin pans they were taken off to other parts of the basement or upstairs to a large number of people standing by with small metal pans and very sharp paring knives. The “snitting” would begin. Now for anyone who doesn’t know the term snitting or snits when it comes to apples allow me to explain
When someone received peeled apples they would take them one at a time, cut them in quarters. remove the core, trim off any left over peel and bruises, then cut the quartered wedge in two again to make eights. Once they were this size they were considered snits. The reason for snitting was so when the small pieces of apple were introduced to the kettle they would cook up much faster than large chunks of apple.
In an assembly line fashion the apples went from being snitted to being washed in cool water, to being bagged up in large plastic trash bags and placed back on the cool basement floor. The entire process would take about 18 hours to make enough snits to make a large kettle of apple butter.
Twelve Hours Worth of Firewood
While most of those involved were busy preparing the snits my grandfather and I along with a few other men would head off to the woods to cut firewood for a fire that would be required to burn very hot for a period of 10 to 12 hours. Along with the amount needed being large it also had to be a certain kind of wood. Pop would only allow us to cut, split and gather dead hardwood. Species like hickory and maple were preferred but anything that wasn’t fir was acceptable.
The mountain closest to town, known as Backbone Mountain, was a really good place to go for free firewood because years before a man who lived just outside of town, along the railroad, had taken a small bulldozer and over the course of one summer cut small single lane dirt roads all over the mountain. The reason for this was to create fire breaks due to a bad wildfire years before that had threatened the town.
Some of these small dirt roads are still in use today as access roads into the state forest. Others have been gated off or grown over years ago but the best part about all of them is the amount of dead hardwood to be found still standing close to the road.
We would make many trips over the course of two days and in the end the woodpile had grown by about 2 cord of dry dead hardwood ready to make a very hot fire. About the same time the last stick of wood was stacked close to the location the kettle would be placed on Saturday, the last bag of snits would be added to the large pile of black bags in the basement.
By the time everything was in place to cook a large kettle full of apples it was Friday evening and everyone involved was two things. Very tired and very hungry. It was tradition for all involved to break bread together with a meal fit for two kings including flap jacks smothered in butter and syrup, bacon, sausage, and the evening was topped off with warm toast, buttered, and lathered with a large gob of last years apple butter. It was considered good luck for the next day
Shiny Pennies and Large Copper Kettles
Finally the big day was at hand. Saturday would start very early once again for quite a few people but the first to rise at our house was the grandparents. I would hear the bathroom door squeak shut and turn to look at my bedside clock knowing it would let me know it was 4:30 am. It wasn’t long until the familiar smells of coffee and bacon frying meant Pop was in the kitchen and it was time to get up even though the sun wouldn’t be making an appearance for at least two more hours.
I remember getting up to the smell of breakfast and after a quick trip to the bathroom I would hurry back to my bedroom to get dressed. From an early age I was always known to lay out what I wanted to wear the next day on important dates like Christmas, birthdays, first day of deer season, and most importantly apple butter time.
As I said before since it was mid October the nights were getting down below freezing on average so putting on long underwear to start the day was mandatory. Down the stairs and out to the kitchen for a quick but hearty breakfast and then down through the basement with the men folk to get everything ready to cook 30 bushels of apples for 8 to 10 hours.
It was the beginning of a very long day.
It was time for everything to be set up included getting the kettle and stand set firmly which was very important. It would be a disaster for things to get uneven with the stand in the evening when the kettle would be near full with 35 to 40 gallons of boiling hot apple butter.
The large, heavy, metal stand built from scratch by a friend of my grandfather. He was known as the best welder in the county and the stand married up with the large, copper kettle like it was made for it, which it was. A level spot in the garden would be the spot for the days activity so the stand would be set and leveled on hard earth with no shimming of any kind. At the same time a tripod made from three rough cut logs would be erected over the area where the stand was placed. Since it was still dark the tripod would come in handy until the sun made an appearance to hold an extension cord with a drop light on the end of it. This would be our only light until the fire was blazing brightly, and then it would be laid aside until dark thirty cam creeping around later in the day to serve the same purpose.
Gramma would show up for the first time with a gallon of vinegar, a box of table salt, a large jar full of pennies numbering 333, and a large scrub brush. The pennies were all different shades of copper and other colors due to dirt and oxidation but that would soon change. They were also random pennies with many different dates.
After the pennies were deposited in the bottom of the kettle the vinegar and salt would follow along with some pre heated boiling water. Aided by a pair of heavy rubber gloves Gramma would go head first into the steaming pot and scrub the entire inside surface of the kettle clean of the oxidation and dirt that had accumulated over the year spent in the attic.
When she was satisfied with her efforts the garden hose would be turned on and everything would be thoroughly rinsed clean, the pennies collected, and the kettle turned on its side to drain. At this point you would need sunglasses on to look inside the kettle or at the pile of pennies. Everything looked like brand new copper including the oldest of all the pennies. It was an amazing transformation to see.
The next thing was to get the fire started that would be kept going at a roaring pace all day and into the evening. There would be a stack of finely split kindling along with Pops traditional red flare, better known as a Fuzee, to get the fire burning quick and hot. Ten minutes later we would start adding the bigger pieces of wood and at that point things got a little hectic.
Before the fire could get the bottom of the kettle warm Gramma would be there with a couple of gallons of homemade grape juice and the first large pan of apple snits. That would be the first of many trips made with this pan and a couple of others like it until all the apples were added to the mix. That would happen sometime in the late afternoon or early evening after the apples were cooked down to sauce and allowed to simmer hard for hours.
Something else that started to happen that would continue non stop for the duration was the addition of the large, long-handled, L shaped, stirring paddle that looked like something out of the middle ages.
It would be placed in the kettle very soon after adding the first ingredients and the first of many people would step up and begin to stir in a pre determined pattern. Starting on the side closest to the person stirring the motion would be to push the large paddle up thru the middle and the over to one side or the other to pull it back, then back up through the middle and back down the other side.
This pattern would be repeated thousands of time throughout the day and into the evening until the apple butter was cooked down to a thick, dark brown, sauce. There would be many variations of the pattern but the middle and both sides would be stirred well every time.
The most important thing to remember for those taking a turn stirring was to be sure and keep the bottom of the paddle on the bottom of the kettle. All of this worked together with the pennies to keep the apple butter from sticking and scorching. A nice steady stir with the same pattern every time was preferred by the Bossâ€¦ Gramma.
Sugar and Spice and Snits
After about twelve hours of stirring and keeping a steady hot fire going under the kettle the last of the apple snits would be added. Keep in mind, at this point, 30 bushels of apples had been reduced to the consistency of a very thick apple sauce. The kettle would be within six inches of the sauce overflowing into the fire and everything was in place for the next step.
Adding the sugar and spices that would turn the entire kettle of applesauce into a dark brown, very thick, sauce that could stand up in a whip on your toast like the top of an ice cream cone was the next step. My Gramma took on the job of mixing a secret list of spices together that included cinnamon, nutmeg, and a few others that she kept to herself. This mixture would be added after many five-pound bags of sugar had been added first.
When I say many I mean many. If my memory serves me right there was 60 or 70 pounds of sugar bought every year and all but one or two bags would be used. Sounds like a lot of sugar but keep in mind it was being used to sweeten 35 to 40 gallons of apple butter.
The last bag was always saved to put Grammas spices in so they would be added last.
Once all of that was done the only thing left was two things. A steady hot fire which would keep the mixture at a slow boil and a steady set of hands on the stirrer. At this point the kettle would be very close to running over and fingers were always crossed waiting for the sauce to cook down into a butter before it happened.
Another problem arose about this time. Lots of steam, from cooking down the apples, swirling around on top of the kettle making hard to see just how full it was.
Oh yea Remember that tripod that got tossed aside early in the morning ? Yea that one.It would be set back up a little off-center of the kettle and high enough to dangle the light directly above the steaming mass and smoke from the fire. The end of the day was in sight at this point but there would be much intense work jammed into a short period of time coming up before it would be over.
My favorite memory from this time in the process was the smell of the apple butter as it slowly cooked and boiled just enough to make these huge apple butter bubbles on top. When they would pop and you standing down wind of the kettle you get a hint of the smells to come along with plenty of wood smoke from the fire.
This was also the time Gramma would begin the first of many trips to the kettle with a small dipper and a white saucer. These were the tools of the expert taste tester and this was the time of day the people stirring found out how long their day was going to be.
The more sugar and spice that would be added at this point meant another half hour of cook time added also. If a small amount of apples was needed due to over sweetening or imbalance of spices that could add hours to the finish time.
Once Gramma announced all was well with the taste the final test of hers to pass was the thickness test. This is the one that could take half an hour or half the night to get right. This consisted of the same trips to the kettle with the same tools but this time instead of tasting she would take a full dipper and put it on the plate. If it fell out like a scoop of ice cream with a curl on top it was finished. If it didn’t make the curl it meant it wasn’t thick enough and would have to be cooked longer.
Dipping, Stirring, and Licking Pennies
Sometime between ten and midnight the order would be given to back off with the fire. At that point Pop would grab a garden rake and begin to pull burning pieces of wood out from under the stand.
A piece here, a log there pulled out and dowsed with the hose. Eventually all that remained was a bed of coals which would be left to keep the bottom of the kettle warm while the dipping process started.
This part of the operation had to happen quickly so the apple butter would not have a chance to start cooling off too soon. For that reason a line of people would be assembled with large wash pans that would hold quite a few gallons of the good stuff.
There would be one person dipping from the kettle and a steady flow of five or six pans all at once. The hot pans were carried to the same area in the basement with the long bench which had been elevated to resemble a long table. It had been filled with quart mason jars, washed clean and dried, ready for another years worth of apple butter.
The women would be lined up in a line along both sides of the table waiting for the pans. Once they were placed on one end of the table the first two would dip jars full and slide them to the next woman who would tap the jar lightly on the table and place the seal ring and screw ring on the jar. Sliding along the next woman would wipe the jar and hand tighten the ring at the same time.
Once this was done the full jars were placed in a warm room and allowed to seal by making a popping sound. This meant the apple butter cooled enough for the rubber seal to do its job. Once in a while a jar wouldn’t seal like the rest and it would have to be undone, a little warm apple butter added and then resealed. Nine out of ten done this way would seal the second time around.
Outside the kettle would be getting closer to being empty and that meant one thing. Warm, clean, pennies with lots of warm, fresh apple butter dripping from them. They would be placed on a plate and given to the kids and anyone else who wanted some. There was always warm toast floating around at this point also.
Once the kettle was empty there would be a few more chores to be done before we could call it a night. First the hose would be turned on and the leftovers on the rim of the kettle would be scrubbed. A putty knife would be employed to get the stuff off that had been baking on the hot rim all day. It would be a gummy gooey mess which resembled the stuff gummy bears are made out of.
After everything was knocked loose and scrubbed really well the stand and kettle would be rolled on their side and the fire dowsed well.
The final job was at hand at that point as the last quart jar was sealed. The kettle would need to be dried completely and carried, along with the stand back to the far corner of the attic to wait until next year.
Everyone involved would say their good byes and gather up their share of the good stuff and head out into the dark night.
I went to visit with my father yesterday because it has been a very trying time lately and when I spend time with him everything seems OK for just a little while. I have a few people in my life who “Raise Me Up” but Dad has been doing it the longest. Even from the grave his spiritual presence is important to my everyday life.
Dad has always been there for me no matter what. One time when I was in my twenties, young and dumb, my father showed me how strong a fathers love is for his son when he decided to meet with me in secret to let me know the FBI was closing in and I was about to be arrested for a huge mistake I had made. He broke federal law to protect me, his son.
Dad and I shared many good times together due to the fact that he was also my Scout Master in Boy Scouts. The most memorable was the cross country trip we took together with another Boy Scout troop to a high adventure camp in New Mexico. We endured the hardest backpacking itinerary they had to offer which was a grueling 78 mile hike with full pack over a period of 14 days
There were many planned activities and things to do at every camp site including gold panning, burro packing, mountaineering, search and rescue training, and much more.
The entire trip and experience inspired my father to write a poem that explained everything about our time together and I read it occasionally just for a pick me up.
Dad was not only my father but he was my best friend and mentor too. He was strict but fair. He was a quiet man but he was known to “carry a big stick” when needed. Over and above everything else he was and still is my HERO.
The temperature is rising a little more every day as we get ready to welcome the month of May. Here in winter quarters in western Maryland the process takes a week or two longer than the rest of the state due to the change in elevation but the local forecast is calling for 70’s and occasional rain for the next week.
I have had quite a few people inquire about the plans for Oro Expeditions for the 2017 season so I figured it was time to share that which Paula Cas and I have been talking about all winter but first I want to take a few minutes to explain the recent past and the lack of an Expedition last year.
It was a cold day in October of 2015 that we returned to Maryland after spending two months in central Nevada where we had been invited to work a private hard rock claim. We had only been back for a few weeks when I did some serious damage to my back and neck. It was the beginning of a very painful time but also a most revealing time because after many troubles in the past with my back this was the time when I decided to find out just how bad it was.
Three MRI’s and three x-rays later, it was clear how much damage a lifetime of driving truck along with two major traumatic events had done to my back and neck. To top it off I was diagnosed with osteoarthritis, stenosis, and a total of five bad disk in my back and neck. Thanks to all of that I have been placed into a “pain management” program which means I will be on some pretty heavy duty pain medication for the rest of my life.
Some would say “Oh no what a bummer.” but not me. The fact is I have a limited number of productive mining seasons left so I will be making the most of every one of them and that begins today. This is where the plans for 2017 will pick up where 2015 left off.
It was August of 2015 in northern California where I met a man named Dave. He had an offer for me that on one hand was almost too good to be true but on the other hand seemed very doable to me at the time.
After a chance meeting at our camp on the Klamath River, the offer was made for us to purchase a package deal that included a hover craft and 4 very exclusive gold claims on a large well known river in Alaska. Dave made it clear to us that he wanted Oro Expeditions to have this deal because he had done his research on me and the company and admired the way I had started the whole thing. Along with how quickly became a fairly successful gold miner.
I have spent a lot of time since August of 2015 putting together a lucrative investment package known as “Oro Expedition Alaska Extreme”. During the winter and early spring of 2016 I had high hopes of that season being the one that would see the Expedition in “The Land of The Midnight Sun” suction dredging a large river with millions of dollars in gold in it but the medical problems would not permit it.
When I realized it was time to get to the bottom things with my back and neck, I also realized the 2016 season would be a bust due to the recuperating process taking an unknown amount of time.
So now we jump ahead to the present, and things are really looking up for a slightly limited season this year that will include a return to many of the western locations we visited in 2015 along with the possibilities of taking the Expedition north of the Canadian border. That is the outline for the year and now for some of the details we have figured out to get things rolling in that direction.
Along with some destinations I visited in 2013 on the first Expedition like north Georgia, eastern Tennessee, and Alabama we are planning to make a trip to the northeast and the shiny yellow metal of New Hampshire and western Maine. This trip will probably take place later in the year before the cold weather moves in.
A trip to the eleven western states will include visits to many of the locations we were at in 2015. Places like southwest Oregon, Happy Camp California, central Nevada and multiple locations in Arizona are all included on the list.
One new location will be added to the list when we head to Arkansas for clear quartz and maybe even a side trip to the Crater of Diamonds State park. I hear the likelihood of scoring a sizable diamond has increased in the past few years so it has been added to the list as well.
That is an outline of how the 2017 season is shaping up, and if my back and neck cooperate, there is a good chance this is the year Oro Expeditions makes it to the Yukon and Alaska.
Regardless of whether or not we make it north, there will be a lot of mining and rock-hounding to be done here in the lower forty eight. So, stay tuned to our social media sites, especially to the official Oro Expeditions Website. Changes and updates will be ongoing so be sure to bookmark the site so you can check on our progress.
In a speech Tuesday, John Kelly promised that DHS, TSA, ICE and CBP would all take a hard-line stance on what he called a “potentially dangerous gateway drug.”
In an interview on NBC’s “Meet the Press,” John Kelly also told host Chuck Todd that “arresting a lot of users” wasn’t the right solution to the country’s drug problems.
The Actual Dredging Studies Support Miner’s Arguments
Above. Placer operation on the Yuba River using a suction dredge.
Did you ever wonder what the real studies say about suction dredging, but didn’t want to have to read through them all. A summary of every study we could find is provided here and links to the actual study. You can see our full list of suction dredging studies on the main research page.
Although technically not a study, this is a report of a senior fisheries biologist from the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW). Responding to complaints from the Karuk tribe CDFW, in conjunction with the USFS sent two senior fisheries biologists to the Salmon River on the last day of dredging season in 2003 to evaluate the effects of an entire summer of dredging and whether these effects could be impacting salmon.
At the conclusion of the on-site evaluation Mr. Dennis Maria, the fisheries biologist concluded:
“The dredge holes created the only discernable juvenile rearing habitat that I could see. This rearing habitat consisted of clean unimbedded cobbles that covered the dredger pool substrate.”
“There exist documented instances that unstable spawning gravel mounds created by dredgers below dredge holes have been used by anadromous salmonids only to be lost by high winter flows washing these gravel mounds away. My files indicate little, if any, spawning occurs in this reach of the Salmon River. Peter Brucker, who has been involved with numerous spawning surveys on the Salmon River over the past number of years (>10 yrs.) agreed this reach of the Salmon River is not typically used for spawning.
“…it is unlikely that the current dredging impacts will significantly or substantially harm anadromous salmonid spawning habitat or juvenile salmonids within this reach.”
“In fact, for an area which had been dredged all summer long, I saw relatively innocuous disturbance of the existing habitat.”
“I saw nothing that would be considered a violation or that would have a significant impact to the fishery or significantly negatively impact the overall biotic community of the Salmon River. I would estimate that the amount of dredger disturbance on the mainstem Salmon River by New 49er members represents at most about 2 to 3% of the entire mainstem Salmon. Nearly most of the disturbed areas we saw during our tour were in areas not suitable for spawning.”
The 2012 California SEIR
The 2012 California SEIR reviewed all available suction dredging studies and found all studies agreed turbidity from a suction dredge was localized and temporary and therefore an insignificant effect of dredging. However, they claimed the combined efforts of every dredger across the State would result in a significant increase in turbidity without citing any study which supported this position. The actual studies found:
In this study Harvey evaluated the effects of suction dredging on Butte Creek and the North Fork of the American River. The significant part of Harvey’s study was he evaluated the effect of 5″ and 6″ dredges over the course of two years and evaluated the effects of a single dredge and the cumulative effect of six dredges. His study primarily focused on the effects of small insects in the river.
Harvey found no significant differences in insect populations in areas which had been dredged, and those which hadn’t been dredged and found insects rapidly re-colonized dredged areas.
Harvey concluded fish weren’t significantly effected by dredging although short term they would move away from the dredge hole, but he found after dredging all eight study fish had moved from their previous location into the dredge hole indicating a 100% preference of the fish for the deeper water dredge hole.
During the experiment Harvey measured the turbidity of the dredge and found in the relatively clear water the turbidity change was noticeable, but dissipated rapdily and didn’t appear to effect either the fish or the insects.
“Fish and invertebrates apparently were not highly sensitive to dredging in general, probably because the streams studied naturally have substantial seasonal and annual fluctuations…Along with the rapid temporal recovery of insects seen in this study, these results suggest that suction dredging effects can be short-lived on streams where high annual flows occur.”
This report studied the cumulative effects of suction dredging in the Siskiyou National Forest under contract to the U.S. Forest Service.
The Baley study focused primarily on the effect of suction dredging on young salmon and found no significant effect. He concludes:
“Localized, short-term effects of suction dredge mining have been documented in a qualitative sense. However, on the scales occupied by fish populations such local disturbances would need a strong cumulative intensity of many operations to have a measurable effect. Local information reveals most suction dredge miners more or less adhere to guidelines that have recently been formalized by the U.S. Forest Service…Given that this analysis could not detect an effect averaged over good and bad miners and that more powerful study would be expensive, it would seem that public money would be better spent on encouraging compliance with current guidelines than further study.”
In this 1982 study commissioned by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife the research evaluated the effects of suction dredging on the environment across the state and with dredge sizes from 2″ to 10″. Over 270 dredges were studied.
The authors found “…relatively few suction dredge miners are causing negative impacts.”
- 93% of dredgers avoided under-cutting the bank
- 94% of dredgers avoided channelizing the stream
- 96% of dredgers avoided damaging riparian vegetation
The authors found the presence of mining claims tended to distribute the dredging operations out and resulted in less environmental impact than in areas where there were no mining claims. The most intensive dredging they found was in areas which were open to dredging, but closed to the location of mining claims. “Claimed streams like the North Fork of the Yuba River had a more even distribution of dredges. However, instream dredging effects tend to be localized not cumulative (Harvey et al. 1982)
The authors concluded “Even with the large increase in the number of suction dredge mining operations in recent years, the aquatic and riparian habitat impacts observed on selected streams of the Mother Lode during this study were minimal.
This 1995 study was conducted under contract to the U.S. Forest service in response to an environmental groups lawsuit which claimed suction dredging was harming the environment.
The purpose of the study was to respond to allegations suction dredges harmed various fish including salmon. The study found salmon would spawn in suction dredge tailings if no other suitable habitat was present which could potentially be detrimental to redd survival if there was a heavy winter flow which could re-distribue the tailings. However, they found the selection of suction dredge tailings was only about 10% and they didn’t observe any mortality of redds in dredge tailings.
The study found a near 100% mortality rate if salmon eggs were sucked through the dredge hose and a very high mortality rate if the fingerlings were sucked through the dredge hose. The study found virtually no risk to juvenile and adult fish.
Salmon preference for dredge habitat was found to be uncertain. “Depending on existing water depth and velocity, dredging may increase or decrease the availability of preffered habitat for salmonids by altering the morphology of individual channel geographic units.”
The study went on to find the deposition of fine silt by a dredge likely has no impact on salmonids and no clear effect on salmon could be determined by the presence of suction dredges in the river, although the report cautioned the location of suction dredges which would block salmon from finding cooler waters could be a concern.
The report found no effects on stream insects consistent with earlier research.
“The three studies which have quantified colonization by benthic invertebrates afer dredging was stopped (Griffith and Andrews 1981; Thomas 1985; Harvey 1986) measured rapid recovery (within 4-6 weeks) in terms of both numbers and species composition.”
“Many recreational dredgers operate for less than five hours per day, suggesting that data from studies exposing biota to chronic suspended sediments would not apply to the impacts of dredging.”
“Available data indicate that individual dredges need not have significant downstream effects on aquatic biota. Downstream impacts may occur where closely-spaced dredges create the potential for cumulative effects of multiple dredges. The only attempt to measure cumulative effects of dredging on fish and invertebrates (Harvey 1986) suggested that a moderate density of dredges does not generate detectable cumulative effects.
This study evaluated the effects of a 3″ suction dredge on fish and insects on four Idaho streams during the summer of 1980.
This study is interesting because it intentionally ran salmonid eggs through a suction dredge to determine mortality. Although no research, anywhere, has shown a suction dredge to actually do this the author of the study wanted to determine what would happen to various fish eggs if they were sucked up by a dredge. The study concluded for some types of eggs there would be a near 100% mortality rate. Although this may be true, there is likely a 100% mortality rate if you lay the same eggs out on the highway. However, the study also found only the un-eyed stage of the eggs is susceptible to mortality from a suction dredge. Once the eggs were “eyed” they had a much higher rate of survival.
This is another study which measured the effects on insects found within the stream and again concluded recolonization by insects is very rapid and there are no significant effects on insect populations. The study evaluated 2,100 mayfly larvae and found only two individuals were injured by the suction dredge. “Aquatic insects were surprising resilent to the effects of entrainment.”
The study found the actual amount of material moved differed greatly from advertised rates. When measuring actual material moved by a 3″ dredge the author found only .05 cubic meters per hour, but when measured using only pre-classified sands and gravel the “advertised rate” the amount of material moved was .13 cubic meters an hour, or double.
“Turbidity below the dredge in Napias Creek and Yankee Fork was nearly undetectable. A turbidity plume was noticeable only a few meters below the dredge in Napias Creek and no plume was seen in Yankee Fork.
In this study Thomas evaluated the effects of a 3″ dredge in Gold Creek near Missoula, Montana.
“The concentration of suspended sediment was greatest at the dredge outflow and decreased rapidly as the heavier particles settled out. Suspended sediment was 1.8 mg/liter 30.5 meters below the dredge, indicating a return to ambient levels…These data indicated that the bulk of the sediment stirred up by the dredging was re-deposited within 6-11 meters of the dredge.”
“Deposited sediment decreased exponentially downstream with the distance from the dredging.”
“The immediate effect of suction dredging was to reduce the number of all species of insects in the area dredged. The effect was very localized. No significant change in abundance was found downstream from the dredged section for any taxonomic group…The number of insects in the dredged section increased 1 month after dredging, even when the numbers in the control and downstream sections decreased – indicating most aquatic insects find dredged areas to be suitable habitat.”
“Intergravel permeability apparently did increase slighlty in the dredged section after dredging. However this difference was not significant.”
“The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of one small dredge operated for a relatively short period of time. The effects seemed to be small, very localized habitat modifications that had a minimal effect on the stream community.”
The Prussian Study, conducted under contract to the US EPA is the only known study to evaluate the effects on water quality from suction dredging in regards to trace metals. The study also evaluated turbidity and the effects on aquatic insects. This was also one of the few studies to evaluate the effects of what are considered large dredges: an 8″ and a 10″ dredge.
The concluions of the study include:
“Dredge operations had no discernable effect on alkalinity, hardness, or specific conductance of water in the Fortymile. Of the factors we measured, the primary effects of suction dredging on water chemistry of the Fortymile River were increased turbidity, total filterable solids, and copper and zinc concentrations downstream of the dredge. These variables returned to upstream levels within 80-160 meters downstream.”
The results from this sampling revealed a relatively intense, but localized, decline in water clarity during the time the dredge was operating.
The impact of the dredge piles relative to the width of the Fortymile River was small. After one year, dredge piles at Site 1 had largely disappeared following the scouring flows that accompany snow melt.
Macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity were greatly reduced in the first 10m below the dredge at Site 1 relative to the upstream reference site. The abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates returned to values seen at the reference site by 80-160 meters downstream. Recovery of macroinvertebrate diverstiy appeared to be substantial.
The results from Resurrection Creek indicated that there was no difference in the macroinvertebrate community between the mining area and the locations downstream.”
“Effects of suction dredging commonly appear to be minor and local.”
This study fundamentally re-looks previous studies and comes to the same conclusions that suction dredges can kill un-eyed salmonid eggs; re-colonization of benthic invertebrates is rapid; and most effects from suction dredging are temporary and local.
This report adds nothing new to the research it only reviews previous research and makes a few recommendations for future studies.
This study was prepared under contract to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It is one of the most extensive studies at 147 total pages. The authors studied the effects of various sized dredges on Canyon Creek in Trinity County California.
The studies demonstrated that the impacts of suction dredge mining on fish and habitat were moderate at the current level. The impacts were seasonal and site specific. The current regulations controlling dredge aperature and size and season appear adequate to protect habitat, but careful monitoring of mining activity is advised.”
This study was prepared under contract to the Washington State Department of Ecology, Environmental Assessment Program. This study evaluated the trace metal impact of suction dredging on the Similkameen River in Washington. It is more thorough than the Fortymile Study.
The study specifically evaluated the effects of suction dredging on levels of arsenic, copper, lead and zinc in the water column. The report concludes:
Results showed that the metals concentrations discharged from small-scale gold dredges are not a significant toxicity concern for aquatic life in the Similkameen River. Although this activity will exacerbate exceedances of arsenic human health criteria, it would take very large numbers of dredges to effect a 10% change in the river’s arsenic levels, even at low-flow conditions.
Based on analyzing 14 effluents and 27 plume samples, it appears that small-scale gold dredges have little or no potential to cause exceedances of aquatic life criteria in the Similkameen River.
The metals concentrations measured in gold dredge effluents during the present study were at or below aquatic life criteria. Therefore, criteria exceedances would not be anticipated in the Similkameen River, regardless of the number of dredges operating.
As the name of this study implies the purpose was to determine what happens to mussels if effected by suction dredging.
The study was conducted in two different areas: Mill Creek and the Similkameen River.
On Mill Creek the study found mussels had a 100% survivability rate of being entrained (sucked up) and all mussels were able to extract themselves from burial of up to 40cm of dredge tailings.
On the Similkameen River the study found a 100% survival rate (and recovery rate) of all mussels which were entrained by the dredge. The study involved simulated entrainment and placement on top of a simulated tailings pile. The mussels were observed for one week and all mussels were able to re-orient themselves and begin feeding after six days.
The Similkameen Study also found from 6% to 13% of mussels which were buried under dredge piles could suffer mortality.
At 89 pages this Master’s Thesis is another very thorough evaluation of the effects of suction dredging. The study evaluated a twenty mile length of Canyon Creek with dredge sizes ranging from 2″ to 6″.
“Turbidity and TSS levels decreased with distance below the dredge. Values 50 meters below the dredge were 2 to 3 times higher than that of the control, but at 100 meters below values returned to normal levels.”
“Sediment deposited decreased with distance below the dredge, average deposited sediment ranged widely between dredges.”
Substrate embeddedness generally increased below dredge sites in the local area.
Minor scour and fill occurred at all dredge sites ranging 6-10%.
There was no statistical difference in young steelhead population counts above the dredge, below the dredge or at control sites indicating the suction dredging operation had no measurable effect.
The normal annual flows at Canyon Creek were adequate to siperse dredge tailing piles and fill in dredge holes. Less than 9% of the holes and tailings from the 1984 mining year were visible at the start of the 1985 season.
“Most streams with mobile beds and good annual flushing flows shold be able to remove the instream pocket and pile creations of suction dredges, although regulated (dams) streams with controlled flows may not.
“In Canyon Creek, several spawning surveys located approximately 60 salmonid redds in the study area, but none were within a dredge tailing pile.
“Suction dredge mining did not appear to influence the locations of adult anadromous salmonid summer-holding areas.”
“Although distinct to even the most casual observer, dredge plumes in Canyon Creek were probably of little direct consequence to fish and invertebrates…In general, dredge turbidity plumes were highly localized and occurrred during midday which is not a peak feeding peeriod for steelhead.”
Fish living space may be reduced within the first few meters below the dredge, but just upstream a new pool is created by the cone-shaped dredge hole. During the study, young steelhead, dace and suckers were observed in active and abandoned dredge holes.
“A high level of suction dredging was evident in Canyon Creek, but adverse effects on aanadromous fish habitat were minimal to moderate.
R2 Resources, 2006, White Paper on Suction Dredging for State of WashingtonThis paper is one of the lesser known, but more thorough evaluations of suction dredging. At 164 pages it is second only to the 2012 California EIR in page length. It was done under contract to the Washington Department of Ecology. It is essentially an environmental impact report of the effects and provides a great single point of reference for suction dredging impacts. This study provides a good review and summary of previous research but adds nothing new to the existing research.
This article is originally posted on and is property of American Mining Rights. Original article can be found here>> The Actual Dredging Studies Support Miner’s Arguments
March 21, 2017, Energy and Natural Resources Senate Committee Public Hearing on House Bill 591 Relative to suction Dredging in the surface waters of the state. This bill was introduce under the premise that suction dredging was harmful to the environment and fish habitat. This bill would prohibit all motorized prospecting as well as rocker boxes. Gold prospectors assemble at the State House in Concord New Hampshire to testify in opposition to this bill, gold prospectors came prepared. Over the last several decades scientific studies have been conducted in numerous states by and or for government agencies such the US Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Fish and Wildlife of California and Washington State just to name a few, and peer reviewed. There were a number of these studies presented to the Committee as well as summaries of these studies prepared by two respected Scientist in this field. All of these studies come to the same conclusion that small scale suction dredging’s impact on the environment and fish habitat is less than significant. The Army Corps of Engineers states that any dredge less than a 6″ nozzle size impact on the environment is “De Minimus”. There was a lot of great testimony from prospectors you can hear the entire hearing here: Senate Committee Public Hearing HB 591.
If you can’t play the hearing here is the summary report of the hearing: Summary Report Public Hearing the audio is far better since this is just a summary.
I commend these Senators for their integrity and honesty, they weighed the facts and based their decision on the facts presented. Their recommendation to the Senate was that HB 591 was inexpedient to legislate. On March 29, 2017 the senate met and voted on HB 591 based on the recommendation of the Energy and Natural Resources Committee and HB 591 was officially killed.
Legislation should be based on facts, scientific, peer reviewed facts and not on assumptions, opinion or conjecture or even lies. Even the opinion of a professional such as a college professor or a biologist in the field, while this opinion may be the basis of a hypothesis, until that hypothesis is proven by scientific study and peer reviewed, is still nothing more than an opinion. The Senators of New Hampshire based their decision on the truth, unlike legislators of other states that pander to special interest groups, I will leave it up to the reader as to why they would pander to these special interest groups.
The Senators of New Hampshire give me hope that our form of government still works the way it should, with integrity and honesty, at least in one state. LIVE FREE OR DIE!!!
Was April 2013. That was the month and year I kicked off Oro Expeditions. It was also the year I ended a 30 year career driving a truck across this great country. It was kinda funny and ironic how that all ended and maybe I will tell more of that story someday but for now I am going to start this “nutshell” with a beginning instead of an ending.
The first Expedition kicked off without glamour. I gathered up all of my basic camping gear along with a weeks worth of food and plenty of clean clothes. The last thing to be loaded into the “Nugget Buggy” was everything I owned to prospect for gold. It was a short list. 2 5 gallon buckets, a short-handled round pointed shovel, a home-made 1/2 in. classifier, and my lucky gold pan given to me as a gift for joining a famous gold club. The last thing on the list was the directory of all the places in the US this club had the rights to prospect and mine for gold.
On the 14th of April, 2013, early in the afternoon, two things happened at the same time. I pulled out of the driveway in western Maryland to begin Oro Expedition 13, a dream of mine for sometime come true and at the same time on the same day a cute little puppy was born that would drop into my life 7 months later in central California during a Christmas blizzard.
I spent 13 months on the gold trail that first year with only one 4 day stay at the house for my wife’s birthday. I traveled to quite a few south-eastern states including North Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee all of which were abundant with the shiny yellow stuff along with numerous different semi precious stones of all colors and shapes.
After many rain filled days spent working the small streams of the east my operation was able to move to the eleven western states in pursuit of much larger gold and much more plentiful gold.
Starting in Colorado and working my way across to Oregon I was able to prospect and find gold every time I crossed a state line. Landing in southwest Oregon and then working my way south as September turned into November, I followed the gold trail to central California high in the Sierra Nevada.
The end of one year and the beginning of a new one also felt like something new for Oro Expeditions was about to start as I made my way back to Maryland in late January of 2014.
I’m not sure where to start with the “now” part of this story so I will begin with what I know about my physical well-being and how it may or may not affect the 2017 gold and gemstone season and beyond.
I have had a history of back trouble since my early twenties when I was involved in a serious fall from a carnival ride I was working on. Then in 2001 I was struck by lightning and of course the back took the worst of it. Then back in 2006 I injured the lower back bad enough I couldn’t walk or sit up straight for almost a week. Once again somewhere around 2015 while helping a friend I blew multiple disks out and found out what lifetime chronic pain feels like.
I have been on a pain program for over a year and the meds I use to get pain relief work well. These are meds I will be on for the rest of my life unless something better is invented. The use of cannabis is a large part of my medical battle with pain along with other problems that use letters to describe them. THC heals them all.
My right shoulder was recently operated on to remove bone spurs and other fun stuff like shortening my collarbone and relocation of my bicep muscle. The good news is it is healing nicely and will be ready for the coming season.
Once again I regress. Back to the season at hand.
I look ahead to the 2017 gold and gemstone season and I see an Expedition that could be the biggest one yet and also one that could be worthy of a spot on one of the reality TV channels. The plan includes multiple locations in the lower 48 along with plans for at least 1 trip up north to the Yukon and interior Alaska. Thanks to the arthritis in my back it might be my last chance to see the Land of The Midnight Sun.
Something I want to focus on this year is a program that involves teaching people, especially children, how to prospect and pan for gold. We will be promoting this wherever we may go and will be posting locations and dates as early as possible. If you check the upcoming schedule we will be posting and we are in your area you will be able to come hang out with us in Gold Camp and learn the basics of finding the shiny yellow metal.
We will be focusing on creating two permanent spaces which will allow us to work year round depending on the season. One will be located on our desert claims located in central Arizona. The other will be somewhere in the northwest with possibilities in Canada and Alaska. Returning back to a plan from 2013 and the first Expedition, I would like to have the whole north south program located in the lower 48 states with future Expeditions expanding northward and also world-wide to exotic locations like “down under”, and also South America. Big ideas or BIG plans to be turned into reality? You decide. For me and my lovely wife we believe it is all doable and more.
I started out calling this piece a “Nutshell” version but I always get a little carried away with excitement when it comes to warm weather and the pursuit of gold and other shiny things so bear with me … hehe